`list.`

`append`

(*x*)- Add an item to the end of the list; equivalent to
`a[len(a):] = [x]`

.

`list.`

`extend`

(*L*)- Extend the list by appending all the items in the given list; equivalent to
`a[len(a):] = L`

.

`list.`

`insert`

(*i*,*x*)- Insert an item at a given position. The first argument is the index of the element before which to insert, so
`a.insert(0, x)`

inserts at the front of the list, and`a.insert(len(a), x)`

is equivalent to`a.append(x)`

.

`list.`

`remove`

(*x*)- Remove the first item from the list whose value is
*x*. It is an error if there is no such item.

`list.`

`pop`

([*i*])- Remove the item at the given position in the list, and return it. If no index is specified,
`a.pop()`

removes and returns the last item in the list. (The square brackets around the*i*in the method signature denote that the parameter is optional, not that you should type square brackets at that position. You will see this notation frequently in the Python Library Reference.)

`list.`

`index`

(*x*)- Return the index in the list of the first item whose value is
*x*. It is an error if there is no such item.

`list.`

`count`

(*x*)- Return the number of times
*x*appears in the list.

`list.`

`sort`

(*cmp=None*,*key=None*,*reverse=False*)- Sort the items of the list in place (the arguments can be used for sort customization, see
`sorted()`

for their explanation).

`list.`

`reverse`

()- Reverse the elements of the list, in place.

>> a = [66.25, 333, 333, 1, 1234.5] >>> print a.count(333), a.count(66.25), a.count('x') 2 1 0 >>> a.insert(2, -1) >>> a.append(333) >>> a [66.25, 333, -1, 333, 1, 1234.5, 333] >>> a.index(333) 1 >>> a.remove(333) >>> a [66.25, -1, 333, 1, 1234.5, 333] >>> a.reverse() >>> a [333, 1234.5, 1, 333, -1, 66.25] >>> a.sort() >>> a [-1, 1, 66.25, 333, 333, 1234.5] >>> a.pop() 1234.5 >>> a [-1, 1, 66.25, 333, 333]

`filter(function, sequence)`

returns a sequence consisting of those items from the sequence for which `function(item)`

is true. If *sequence* is a`str`

, `unicode`

or `tuple`

, the result will be of the same type; otherwise, it is always a `list`

. For example, to compute a sequence of numbers divisible by 3 or 5:

```
>>> def f(x): return x % 3 == 0 or x % 5 == 0
...
>>> filter(f, range(2, 25))
[3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24]
```

`map(function, sequence)`

calls `function(item)`

for each of the sequence’s items and returns a list of the return values. For example, to compute some cubes:

```
>>> def cube(x): return x*x*x
...
>>> map(cube, range(1, 11))
[1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216, 343, 512, 729, 1000]
```

`reduce(function, sequence)`

returns a single value constructed by calling the binary function *function* on the first two items of the sequence, then on the result and the next item, and so on. For example, to compute the sum of the numbers 1 through 10:

```
>>> def add(x,y): return x+y
...
>>> reduce(add, range(1, 11))
55
```

If there’s only one item in the sequence, its value is returned; if the sequence is empty, an exception is raised.

A third argument can be passed to indicate the starting value. In this case the starting value is returned for an empty sequence, and the function is first applied to the starting value and the first sequence item, then to the result and the next item, and so on. For example,

```
>>> def sum(seq):
... def add(x,y): return x+y
... return reduce(add, seq, 0)
...
>>> sum(range(1, 11))
55
>>> sum([])
0
```

List comprehensions provide a concise way to create lists. Common applications are to make new lists where each element is the result of some operations applied to each member of another sequence or iterable, or to create a subsequence of those elements that satisfy a certain condition.

For example, assume we want to create a list of squares, like:

```
>>> squares = []
>>> for x in range(10):
... squares.append(x**2)
...
>>> squares
[0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81]
```

We can obtain the same result with:

```
squares = [x**2 for x in range(10)]
```

This is also equivalent to `squares = map(lambda x: x**2, range(10))`

, but it’s more concise and readable.

A list comprehension consists of brackets containing an expression followed by a `for`

clause, then zero or more `for`

or `if`

clauses. The result will be a new list resulting from evaluating the expression in the context of the `for`

and `if`

clauses which follow it. For example, this listcomp combines the elements of two lists if they are not equal:

```
>>> [(x, y) for x in [1,2,3] for y in [3,1,4] if x != y]
[(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 1), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 4)]
```

and it’s equivalent to:

```
>>> combs = []
>>> for x in [1,2,3]:
... for y in [3,1,4]:
... if x != y:
... combs.append((x, y))
...
>>> combs
[(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 1), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 4)]
```

Note how the order of the `for`

and `if`

statements is the same in both these snippets.

If the expression is a tuple (e.g. the `(x, y)`

in the previous example), it must be parenthesized.

```
>>> vec = [-4, -2, 0, 2, 4]
>>> # create a new list with the values doubled
>>> [x*2 for x in vec]
[-8, -4, 0, 4, 8]
>>> # filter the list to exclude negative numbers
>>> [x for x in vec if x >= 0]
[0, 2, 4]
>>> # apply a function to all the elements
>>> [abs(x) for x in vec]
[4, 2, 0, 2, 4]
>>> # call a method on each element
>>> freshfruit = [' banana', ' loganberry ', 'passion fruit ']
>>> [weapon.strip() for weapon in freshfruit]
['banana', 'loganberry', 'passion fruit']
>>> # create a list of 2-tuples like (number, square)
>>> [(x, x**2) for x in range(6)]
[(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9), (4, 16), (5, 25)]
>>> # the tuple must be parenthesized, otherwise an error is raised
>>> [x, x**2 for x in range(6)]
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
[x, x**2 for x in range(6)]
^
SyntaxError: invalid syntax
>>> # flatten a list using a listcomp with two 'for'
>>> vec = [[1,2,3], [4,5,6], [7,8,9]]
>>> [num for elem in vec for num in elem]
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
```

List comprehensions can contain complex expressions and nested functions:

```
>>> from math import pi
>>> [str(round(pi, i)) for i in range(1, 6)]
['3.1', '3.14', '3.142', '3.1416', '3.14159']
```

The initial expression in a list comprehension can be any arbitrary expression, including another list comprehension.

Consider the following example of a 3×4 matrix implemented as a list of 3 lists of length 4:

```
>>> matrix = [
... [1, 2, 3, 4],
... [5, 6, 7, 8],
... [9, 10, 11, 12],
... ]
```

The following list comprehension will transpose rows and columns:

```
>>> [[row[i] for row in matrix] for i in range(4)]
[[1, 5, 9], [2, 6, 10], [3, 7, 11], [4, 8, 12]]
```

As we saw in the previous section, the nested listcomp is evaluated in the context of the `for`

that follows it, so this example is equivalent to:

```
>>> transposed = []
>>> for i in range(4):
... transposed.append([row[i] for row in matrix])
...
>>> transposed
[[1, 5, 9], [2, 6, 10], [3, 7, 11], [4, 8, 12]]
```

which, in turn, is the same as:

```
>>> transposed = []
>>> for i in range(4):
... # the following 3 lines implement the nested listcomp
... transposed_row = []
... for row in matrix:
... transposed_row.append(row[i])
... transposed.append(transposed_row)
...
>>> transposed
[[1, 5, 9], [2, 6, 10], [3, 7, 11], [4, 8, 12]]
```

In the real world, you should prefer built-in functions to complex flow statements. The `zip()`

function would do a great job for this use case:

```
>>> zip(*matrix)
[(1, 5, 9), (2, 6, 10), (3, 7, 11), (4, 8, 12)]
```